Ambrose et al., Why Do Student Development and Course Climate Matter for Student Learning?

"The social and emotional gains that students make during college are considerably greater than the intellectual gains over the same span of time."

Chickering Stages of Student Development

  1. Developing Competence

  2. Managing Emotions

  3. Developing Autonomy

  4. Establishing Identity

  5. Freeing Interpersonal Relationships

  6. Developing Purpose

  7. Developing Integrity
Perry Stages of Intellectual Development
  1. Duality

  2. Multiplicity

  3. Relativism

  4. Commitment
Hardiman-Jackson Stages of Social Identity Development
  1. Naive

  2. Acceptance

  3. Resistance

  4. Immersion

  5. Disintegration

  6. Redefinition

  7. Internalization